Glossary of Terms
Efferent: A conduction of impulses from the brain or spinal cord towards the periphery.
Ergonomics: Describes the relationship between the worker and the environment in which the work (job/school/play) is performed.
Fasciculation: Involuntary contractions or twitching of groups of muscle fibers.
Fibrillation: Rapid contractions or twitching of muscular fibrils but not of the entire muscle.
Flaccid: Absence of tone
Hoffman’s Reflex: Tested by flicking either the volar or dorsal surfaces of the third or fourth phalanx. A positive response is flexion of the thumb and may indicate an upper motor neuron lesion due to spinal compression.
Hyper-reflexia: Over-reactive response to deep tendon reflex testing. Generally associated with upper motor neuron lesions.
Hypertonic: Increased muscle tone above normal resting levels.
Hypo-reflexia: Less than normal response to deep tendon reflex testing. Generally associated with lower motor neuron lesions.
Hypotonic: Decreased muscle tone below normal resting levels.
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